What are Expert Systems in Artificial Intelligence

What are Expert Systems in Artificial Intelligence?

An expert system is a computer program that uses artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to simulate the judgement and behaviour of a human or an organization that has expertise and experience in a particular field. Expert systems are usually intended to complement, not replace, human experts.It is widely used in many areas such as medical diagnosis, accounting, coding, games etc. An expert system is AI software that uses knowledge stored in a knowledge base to solve problems that would usually require a human expert thus preserving a human expert’s knowledge in its knowledge base.

What are the 5 parts of an expert system?

An expert system has five basic components: knowledge base, inference engine, explanation component, user interface, and acquisition component. An Expert System is a computer program (software) that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to reproduce the judgment of a human with expert knowledge in a particular field. A good Expert System solves a problem accurately, quickly and is easy to use . 

Characteristics of Expert Systems

  • High performance
  • Understandable
  • Reliable
  • Highly responsive

Capabilities of Expert Systems

The expert systems are capable of −

  • Advising
  • Instructing and assisting human in decision making
  • Demonstrating
  • Deriving a solution
  • Diagnosing
  • Explaining
  • Interpreting input
  • Predicting results
  • Justifying the conclusion
  • Suggesting alternative options to a problem

What is Knowledge?

The data is a collection of facts. The information is organized as data and facts about the task domain. Data, information, and past experience combined together are termed as knowledge.

Components of Knowledge Base

The knowledge base of an ES is a store of both, factual and heuristic knowledge.

  • Factual Knowledge − It is the information widely accepted by the Knowledge Engineers and scholars in the task domain.
  • Heuristic Knowledge − It is about practice, accurate judgement, one’s ability of evaluation, and guessing.


Advantages of Using Expert System:

1] Providing consistent solutions
2] Provides reasonable explanations
3] Overcome human limitations
4] Easy to adapt to new conditions

Disadvantages of Using Expert System:

1] Lacks common sense
2] High implementation and maintenance cost
3] Difficulty in creating inference rules
4] May provide wrong solutions

Expert Systems Limitations

No technology can offer easy and complete solution. Large systems are costly, require significant development time, and computer resources. ESs have their limitations which include −

  • Limitations of the technology
  • Difficult knowledge acquisition
  • ES are difficult to maintain
  • High development costs

Benefits of Expert Systems

  • Availability − They are easily available due to mass production of software.
  • Less Production Cost − Production cost is reasonable. This makes them affordable.
  • Speed − They offer great speed. They reduce the amount of work an individual puts in.
  • Less Error Rate − Error rate is low as compared to human errors.
  • Reducing Risk − They can work in the environment dangerous to humans.
  • Steady response − They work steadily without getting motional, tensed or fatigued.

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